Diversidad y estructura arbórea, indicadores de salud aplicados a un Bosque Urbano de la Ciudad de México

Luz de Lourdes Saavedra-Romero, Patricia Hernández-de la Rosa, Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales, Tomás Martínez-Trinidad, Jaime Villa-Castillo

Resumen


El arbolado urbano es un elemento esencial en la infraestructura de toda urbe. El Bosque San Juan de Aragón (BSJA) en la Ciudad de México está catalogado como un área verde de valor ambiental pero su condición de diversidad arbórea como indicador de salud se desconoce. Los objetivos del estudio fueron adaptar los procedimientos del Indicador de Salud Forestal Diversidad y Estructura (IDE) y generar un diagnóstico sobre el estado actual del BSJA.  Dentro del bosque se ubicaron al azar 28 sitios circulares de 0.1 ha, en cada sitio se determinó por árbol: su clasificación taxonómica, el diámetro normal (Dap), la altura total (At), la proporción de copa viva y la densidad de copa. Se calcularon el área basal (Aba), volumen compuesto y área superficial de copa y los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Berger-Parker y de similitud de Jaccard; además, de un Índice de Valor de Importancia Urbano (IVIU).  En total se evaluaron 760 árboles de 10 familias, 11 géneros y 12 especies. Las familias Casuarinaceae, Proteaceae, Myrtaceae y Cupressaceae representaron el 69% de la densidad. El Dap promedio fue de 17,5 cm, la At de 8,6 m y el Aba de 0,40 m2/ha. El valor máximo para el índice de Shannon, Simpson y Berger-Parker fue de 1,88, 0,84 y  0,76, respectivamente. El índice de Jaccard presentó un rango de 22 a 87% entre secciones del bosque. Casuarina equisetifolia y Eucalyptus camaldulensis presentaron los IVIU más altos con 28,19% y 18,02%, respectivamente. La diversidad arbórea es baja, similar a otras áreas verdes del mundo. El IVIU identifica a las especies con el mayor potencial para proveer servicios ecosistémicos por su alto porcentaje de biomasa y cobertura. Los procedimientos del IDE fueron fácilmente adaptados y aplicados al arbolado del BSJA.


Palabras clave


bosque urbano, salud forestal, índices de diversidad

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18387/polibotanica.47.3

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